Root alignment construction. Here we show the same progressive alignment as Figure 1. Each edge in the tree is labeled with the e-string for its side of the alignment at the parent node. The e-string needed to insert indels into a sequence in the root alignment can be determined by multiplying e-strings along the path to the root. For example, for sequence LSF, the root e-string is <3,-1,1>*<1,-1,2> = <1,-1,1,-1,1>.