- Poster presentation
- Open Access
Next-gen sequencing of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii to determine antibiotic resistance genotypes
BMC Bioinformatics volume 11, Article number: P16 (2010)
Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of hospital acquired infection and often increases mortality and length of stay[1–3]. The mechanisms of resistance include: (1) antimicrobial-inactivating enzymes such as □-lactamases, (2) alteration of membrane porin channels, and (3) mutations that change cellular functions . Accurate genotyping and correlation to antimicrobial susceptibility will help prevent and treat outbreaks of Acinetobacter.
The genome of A. baumannii ranges from 3.2 Megabases (Mb) in the drug sensitive SDF strain up to 3.9 Mb in the MDR AYE strain. A surprisingly high proportion of baumannii ORFs, (15%-20%), are located in resistance islands or “alien islands” - long stretches of DNA acquired from a foreign source. The MDR AYE strain has an 86Kb island containing 45-50 drug resistance genes located in an insertion hotspot . Our study aims to sequence several A. baumanni i isolates from Metro Nashville General (NGH) Hospital and conduct a strain-to-reference genomic characterization of clinical virulence factors.
Materials and methods
A retrospective review of the NGH hospital epidemiology data base included 247 isolates of A. baumannii from 164 patients (submitted, BMC Infectious Disease). Cluster Software version 2.11 and TreeView software grouped resistance phenotypes into six categories (see Figure 1) .
3.Sensitive to meropenem /imipenem only.
4.Sensitive to meropenem/imipenem and aminoglycoside only.
5.Sensitive to cephalosporins only.
6.Resistant to aminoglycosides only.
We chose a meripenum/imepenum and aminoglycosides sensitive baumanii isolate for strain-to-reference sequencing on an Illumina Genome Analyzer II system at the Vanderbilt University Genome Technology Core (https://gtc.vanderbilt.edu/gtc/tech).
Initial sequencing yielded 5,250,420 reads of 43bp each, yielding 225.76 Mb of total sequence. The reads from our isolate were aligned to MDR baumannii reference strain ACICU (NC_010611.1). Alignment was done with the Bowtie Aligner . Of the 5.2 million total reads, 4,004,012 (76.26%) aligned to AICIU, with a mean coverage depth of 43.96 fold. Roughly 58% of the ACICU genome was covered by at least one read. We will next align the reads further with other baumannii reference strains including MDR AYE (NC_010410) and non-resistant strain SDF (NC_010400) in order to further characterize and annotate our isolate at the genomic level.
Garcia-Garmendia J, Ortiz-Leyba C, Garmacho-Montero J, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Monterrubio-Villar J, Gili-Miner M: Mortality and the increase in length of stay attributable to the acquisition of Acinetobacter in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 1999, 27(9):1794–1799. 10.1097/00003246-199909000-00015
Falagas ME, Rafailidis PI: Attributable mortality of Acinetobacter baumannii : no longer a controversial issue. Critical Care (London, England) 2007, 11(3):134. 10.1186/cc5911
Jamulitrat S, Arunpan P, Phainuphong P: Attributable mortality of imipenem-resistant nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infection. J Med Assoc Thai 2009, 92(3):413–419.
Bonomo RA, Szabo D: Mechanisms of multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin Infect Dis 2006, 43(Suppl 2):S49-S56. 10.1086/504477
Fournier PE, Vallenet D, Barbe V, Audic S, Ogata H, Poirel L, Richet H, Robert C, Mangenot S, Abergel C, Nordmann P, Weissenbach J, Raoult D, Claverie JM: Comparative genomics of multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii . Plos Genet 2006, 2(1):e7. 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020007
Eisen MB, Spellman PT, Brown PO, Botstein D: Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns. PNAS 1998, 95: 14863–14868. 10.1073/pnas.95.25.14863
Langmead B, Trapnell C, Pop M, Salzberg SL: Ultrafast and memory-efficient alignment of short DNA sequences to the human genome. Genome Biol 2009, 10: R25. doi:10.1186/gb-2009–10–3-r25 doi:10.1186/gb-2009-10-3-r25 10.1186/gb-2009-10-3-r25
Experiment design and data analysis performed through the use of the Meharry Medical College Microarray and Bioinformatics Core, which is supported in part by NIH grants G12RR03032-19 and P20RR011792. (http://www.mmc.edu/bioinformatics/)
Sequencing and alignment was performed at the Vanderbilt University Genome Technology Core (https://gtc.vanderbilt.edu/gtc/tech).
About this article
Cite this article
Dent, L., Marshall, D., Hulette, R. et al. Next-gen sequencing of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii to determine antibiotic resistance genotypes. BMC Bioinformatics 11, P16 (2010). https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.1186/1471-2105-11-S4-P16
- Acinetobacter Baumannii
- Illumina Genome Analyzer
- Drug Resistance Gene